by Anastasia Kizilo | September 30, 2021 9:51 am
Automated UI testing has been a widely discussed topic lately. As its name suggests, it stands for automating the process of user interface (UI) testing with the help of various automation tools, frameworks, and scripts.
In its turn, UI testing means verifying if the user interface is working correctly and equally well in different environments: browsers, devices, and platforms. This type of testing checks the UI functionality, its workflows, navigation, the proper displaying and work of all the elements of the user interface, etc.
It is extremely important to validate that the user interface is functioning correctly because the end users interact with the application and access its functionality through the UI. So their experience (and satisfaction) with the solution largely depends on the way its user interface works.
In this article, we will cover UI test automation, its benefits, the cases when it’s best to apply it, and some of the most useful testing tools for it.
With the current need for the ever growing speed of software development and delivering increments, there is a trend in QA to move toward automation, UI testing being no exception. This is a positive tendency as mobile and web UI test automation have many benefits:
With the multiple benefits test automation can bring to the table, it’s no wonder that, according to the World Quality Report 2020-2021, 62% of companies think that automation can make QA a smarter process.
Here is how the interviewees of the World Quality Report 2020-2021 ranked the benefits of automated testing:
Automated user interface testing is a great solution that can save you much time, money, and troubles with quality issues. However, it is not one-size-fits-all. Rather, there are certain circumstances when automating UI testing is the best decision.
When to automate GUI testing:
Now let’s delve into each of these situations in more detail.
Test automation requires substantial initial investment for hiring or training the required automation experts and using certain paid testing tools. But it leads to an increase in Return on Investment (ROI) in the long run. Yet, the project should be large and extended enough to see this benefit. Otherwise, the cost of implementing UI automation testing may not be justified. For small short-term projects, manual testing would often be a more feasible option.
Test automation in general works better for the software that has reached a certain level of stability. The reason for this is that every time there are changes in an application, the auto scripts for it need to be adjusted. If this happens frequently, the support and maintenance of the auto tests would take too much time and effort. So when it comes to UI testing automation, the user interface of the application should be stable enough.
Repetitive tests are among the best candidates for automation. Performing the same simple task manually over and over again wastes much time and effort of the testing and / or development team, which should be better spent on more creative and complex assignments that require expertise. Repetitive tests are also prone to human error as it is easy to lose focus with them. When the number of such graphical user interface checks is large, automating GUI testing makes even more sense. It saves much time and greatly increases the efficiency and reliability of testing.
Sometimes, in large projects, the number of the needed user interface tests can reach 3000 and more. Of course, running them manually is unreasonable – if at all possible. In cases when there is a need to run such tests at the very same time, there is no chance it can be done manually. But it is not a problem with UI automation. What’s more, automation allows to run tests continuously, gathering information in the real time. So bugs can be found and fixed earlier in the development process.
UI testing and GUI testing, as well as their automation, are often used as interchangeable terms. It is understandable as they are very similar. However, there are slight differences. To clear them up, let’s look into UI vs. GUI first.
The user interface (UI) is any point of entry of data from the user into the application. It is also the user’s gateway to all the solution’s functionality and the way for the user to interact with the application.
The graphical user interface (GUI) is one of the types of user interfaces with a graphical component.
Here is an example of the simplest UI:
Now, check the example of a GUI below to see the difference:
As there is an additional graphical component in the GUI, the approaches to UI testing and GUI testing and tools used in them slightly differ. Overall, one can say that testing a GUI would be more complex than testing a simple user interface because of the graphical element. The same can be applied to automation of these kinds of testing as well.
However, the absolute majority of modern applications would have a graphical user interface. Also, the GUI is a type of a user interface. So today, when people say “UI testing”, they usually mean testing of a graphical user interface. This is why in this article, we also use UI and GUI automation testing interchangeably.
Now that all the basics of automated UI testing are covered, let’s talk about something more specific: what testing tools to use when automating the QA of the user interface. Based on years of practice, we have come up with this list of GUI automation tools we find the most useful.
No list of test automation tools would ever be complete without Selenium. It is arguably the most popular framework for QA automation today. Selenium is open-sourced and portable. It supports multiple operating systems and browsers, as well as most popular programming languages. Selenium allows recording, remote control, creation of complex tests if needed, running tests in parallel on multiple platforms at the same time, and more. It also has great community support. Selenium is extremely useful if you need to run an automated UI test, as well as almost any other auto test.
Cypress is another incredibly helpful open-sourced tool. It is particularly useful for testing in browsers as it tracks all the events there, including any page elements manipulation. Cypress also has an automatic waiting mechanism and a feature that allows a tester to roll back to previous steps of the test execution. Additionally, this tool has extensive and informative documentation that makes using it easier.
WebdriverIO is an open-sourced automation test framework that makes interaction with an app simpler and provides plugins for the creation of scalable and stable auto tests. WebdriverIO is particularly useful for cross-browser testing. It applies WebDriver Protocol and is integrated with many other popular tools such as Chrome DevTools and Puppeteer. WebdriverIO can be a good addition to your list of UI automation testing tools.
Another open source tool, Pytest simplifies the process of writing both small and complex auto tests. As its name suggests, this framework is for Python. It allows integration with more than 315 third-party plugins. Pytest also has a very helpful and active community. This tool can also be used to make the creation of a UI automation test easier.
TestNG is an automation testing framework for Java. It covers all types of tests, including UI. TestNG strives to provide features that will contribute to a maintainable and intuitive testing design. While multifunctional in its nature, TestNG can also enrich your set of automated GUI testing tools.
JUnit is an extremely popular unit testing framework for Java. It was an inspiration and basis for TestNG mentioned above. JUnit is also one of the most popular external libraries for Java projects on GitHub. It is a good idea to also take advantage of this automation tool in your testing.
Automated user interface testing can be an excellent way to speed up the development process, free up your team’s time for complex and creative tasks on the project, optimize budget, and improve the product’s quality.
UI test automation may not be for everyone. But when the company meets the conditions that make it a good fit, amazing benefits that will make automation worth the effort are sure to come.
Implementing automated UI testing today is also easier than before because of the multiple great UI automation tools that can help you with it.
But if you need any help with automation of user interface testing, the QATestLab team will be happy to provide any assistance any time. With 15+ years of cross-industry QA experience and a specialized Test Automation Department, we are ready to take on a task of any difficulty. The requested number of our 250+ QA engineers would be glad to join your project on demand at any stage of the Software Development Life Cycle.
Please don’t hesitate to contact us.
Source URL: https://blog.qatestlab.com/2021/09/30/automated-ui-testing/
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